Six Sigma & it’s certification in Pakistan

Compiled by: Fouzia Naz & Muhammad Adil


Six Sigma is a business management strategy in which defects reduce to 3.4 parts millions. In Six Sigma we minimize the defects in minimum cost, OR, it is a statically method to find the defects per million.

Six Sigma stands for Six Standard deviations from the arithmetic mean. It tells us how often defects are likely to occur. A defect may be thought of as anything that results in customer dissatisfaction. The higher the value of sigma, the lower the probability of a defect occurring. Six Sigma statically ensures that 99.99966% of all produced products in a process are of acceptable quality. According to above percentage of acceptable quality, if we are in 0.0 Sigma we have 933,133 defects in one million opportunities, in 1 Sigma we have 691,462 defects, and if we get 6 Sigma we have only 3.4 defects.

Concept Of Six Sigma:

Sigma Defects Per Million
0.0 Sigma 933,193
0.5 Sigma 841,345
1.0 Sigma 691,462
1.5 Sigma 500,000
2.0 Sigma 308,538
2.5 Sigma 158,655
3.0 Sigma 66,807
3.5 Sigma 22,750
4.0 Sigma 6,210
4.5 Sigma 1,350
5.0 Sigma 233
5.5 Sigma 32
6.0 Sigma 3.4

If any process fails to meet the criteria of given table, it is reanalyzed, altered and implemented. If no any improvement found than the process is reanalyzed, altered and again implemented. This cycle is continued until any improvement is seen. Once an improvement is found, it is documented and the knowledge is spread across other units in the company so they can implement this new process and reduce their defects.

Methodologies Use In Six Sigma:

There are two methodologies use in Six Sigma, depends on the life of process or product or a process or product which has to be implemented.

If any product or process is in existing state but not satisfying the user requirement then DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, Improve, control) is used.

If any product or process which is not exist, then DFSS (design for Six Sigma) OR a process or product which is exist but fails to achieve the desired sigma target( by using DMAIC or not), then DFSS is used.


Define: Define the problem that is affecting the quality, define customer suggestions and complains, define goal in Sigma level and define opportunities.

Measure: In this phase project team should make a detailed process map, detailed base line data and a calculation of baseline Sigma process.

Analyze: In analyze phase project team makes at least one confirmed hypothesis regarding the root causes of the problem the project aims to resolve.

Improve: The goal of this phase is to identify solution of the problem that the project’s aim to address. This involves in finding the different solutions, to test them and chose a solution, then evaluating the result of implemented solution.

Control: Object of this phase is to ensure that the gains obtained during improve phase are maintained long after the project has ended. To that end of life cycle it is necessary to standardize document procedures, make sure that all employees are trained and communicate the project result.


Define: Define the goal of project and customer requirement. Define that what the customer wants?

Measure: Determine and measure the customer needs and their specifications.

Analyze: According to customer requirement analyze different options of processes.

Design: Make detailing (design) of process, which fulfills the customer’s needs.

Verify: Verify and test the design, performance and ability to meet customer needs.

Implementation Roles:

One key factor of Six Sigma is to “professionalizing” the quality management process. There is some role hierarchy, by which Six Sigma is to be implemented in an organization or business.

Executive Leadership:

They are top level executives and hold primary responsibility for seeing the implementation of Six Sigma through start to finish (when goal is achieved). They are responsible for selections of project members and delegation their responsibilities.


They are members of upper management and selected by executive leaders. They are responsible for implementation of Six Sigma in the organization. It is responsibility of the champions to understand the principles of Six Sigma. They must act as a guide for implementation team because they are the first to obtain formal training or are hired before any other member of implementation team.

Master Black Belts:

Master Black Belts are chosen by champions to mentor the members having low role (black belt, green belt etc.). They are responsible for delivering the results of the projects that are being constructed. They must perform some statistical tasks to ensure the consistent application of Six Sigma throughout the entire organization. A Master Black Belt must have strong leadership skills.

Black Belts:

Black Belt is of middle management. They are responsible for executing the Six Sigma plan of action. They are technical than other members of team. Their job is to create, facilitate, train, and lead teams, with an analytical approach. They use statistical tools to lead other team members.

Green Belts:

They help Black Belts. They help Black Belt as part time, and they also do their own job, therefore they are not fully active in Six Sigma implementation.

Yellow Belts:

Everyone except Six Sigma implementation team (and in some cases throughout the whole organization) is yellow belts. They help green belts meet project goals and objectives as administrators, operations personnel.

Total Quality Management And Six Sigma:

Six Sigma and Total quality management both are used to reduce error or defects in a process, but goals and approaches are different. On the organization level these differences are given below.

Core Business:

Total Quality Management Six Sigma
It is not a part of business strategy. It is a strategy from the top of business process.
Quality controllers don’t include senior manager. Projects are carefully selected with managers accountables.


Total Quality Management Six Sigma
Its goal to improve each process of business. Its goal to minimize defects to 3.4 per opportunities.
Usually TQM is not targeted to a process or business. It is targeted to specific area/s.
There is no performance level in TQM. It has continually increased performance level.


Total Quality Management Six Sigma
People learn from total quality management. In Six Sigma black belt are well trained.
In TQM use many tools as possible. In it, use necessary tools.
Don’t worry about the bottom line. Each iteration of project is expected to meet with bottom line.


Total Quality Management Six Sigma
Changes just come in department. Can get good result when focuses on customer.
Changes because of TQM, is not urgently required. Just focuses on the business process/es.


Total Quality Management Six Sigma
It focuses in manufacturing. It focuses in all business process.
It also little focuses on marketing and services. Just focuses on the business process/es.

Six Sigma Certification:

Six Sigma certification is a confirmation for a person that he has expertise in Six Sigma. A person can become Six Sigma certified from a training company or his organization may offer him. There are two sections to become a certified Six Sigma, first pass a written proficiency test, second display competency in a hands-on environment. The materials can be purchased from almost any Six Sigma training and consulting company, but almost always comes bundled with classroom training. Usually company purchases a training session, which has different bodies of knowledge and durations for each Six Sigma level (green belt, black belt, master black belt, sponsor, etc.).

After completing test, person must complete one or two quality projects and display his concept learnt in classroom. At this point some organization gives certificate according to displayed project, if one project than Green Belt and if two project then Black Belt or Master Black Belt. This rule is not standard; it varies from organization to organization.

Six Sigma Certification In Pakistan:

There are some training companies and organizations are providing Six Sigma certification, which are given below. Time duration and fee can vary on each schedule.

Pakistan Institute Of Quality Control:

Institute’s Information: PIQC INSTITUTE OF QUALITY is a leading Institute in Pakistan in the field of Quality Assurance and Management, Human Resource Management and Industrial Management in Pakistan. For the last 19 years, it is providing high level of professional development and certification programs, Master’s degree programs, seminars, consulting and advisory services, conferences and publications in the field of TQM (including Six Sigma, ISO 9001, ISO 14000, OHSAS 18000, ISO 17025, QA in Schools and Higher Education, TPM, QCC, and 5S); Human Resource Management (Training & Development, OB, Organizational Design, and IR); and Industrial Management (including Production Management, Supply Chain Management, etc). It has so far provided training to more than 35,000 persons and consulting services to around 250 organizations for the deployment of TQM Frameworks and QMS & EHS Management Systems.

Coerces Offer: Black Belt (20 days, spread over four months) and Green Belt (5 days)

Course Fee: For Black Belt, US$ 1,650/equivalent to Pak Rs per participant. For Green Belt, US$ 650 /equivalent to Pak Rs per participant.

Course Pre-Request: For Green Belt, familiarity with basic statistics and computer skills, and a computer laptop.

Head Office: ½ Km, (Defence-Kahna Road) Off: Monnoo Chowk, 10 km Raiwind Road Lahore Pakistan.

Tel: 92-42-5324167-8,92-42-5323600-4

Fax: 92-42-5324169


Karachi Office: D-63, Block 8, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Karachi Pakistan.

Tel: 92-21-4973784, 4822234

Fax: 92-21-4990775



Knowledge Hub:

Institute’s Information: Knowledge Hub started operation during the first quarter of 2003, in the field of Quality, Environmental, Health & Safety. Knowledge Hub is providing consultancy and training services on Six sigma, ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO TS 16949, OHSAS 18001, ISO 22000, SA 8000 etc. The company is headed by Mr. Ayaz Ghani, who is Six Sigma Black Belt, IRCA Registered Lead Auditor and Certified Quality Auditor. He is also lead tutor of many registered courses including Lead Auditor courses.

Coerces Offer: Black Belt (5 days) and Green Belt (5 days)

Course Fee: For Black and Green Belt, 600 BD (Bangladesh Taka).

Office: D – 32, Block– 7, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan.

Tel: +92-213-4973151, +92-213-4815995 & +92-213-4973150

E-mail: &


Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology:

About Trainer: Rizwan A Dard is a Master Black Belt from USA. He holds an MS degree in Industrial & Systems Engineering from University of Southern California (USC). He is a management consultant and a professional trainer. In past Rizwan has worked with US organizations like “Honeywell” Inc. and Cross Country Automotive where he worked as Black Belt to implement and run the Six Sigma/Lean Programs. He also did projects in Credit Card Operations, Investment Banking Operations and Telecom Human Resources in USA and Pakistan. Rizwan has also conducted various professional trainings in USA and Pakistan.

Coerces Offer: Black Belt (120 hours/20 days, spread over 10 weeks) and Green Belt (20 days)

Course Fee: For Green Belt, Rs 1,60,000/=. Receive a Rs.5,000 discount per person if two or more employees from the same company

Address: Topi, Swabi, NWFP, Pakistan 23640

Tel: +92 938 271858-61

Fax: +92-938-271889



National Productivity Organization:

About Organization: The National Productivity Organization (NPO), Ministry of Industries and Production, Government of Pakistan, the only government institution leading the productivity and quality movement in Pakistan, is organizing Six Sigma Green Belt Training Program for executives working in manufacturing and service sectors

Coerces Offer: Green Belt (12 Classes, spread over 26 days) and Green Belt (20 days)

Address: National Productivity Organization,

Regional Office Karachi, C 37 / II, Block 4, Clifton,

Karachi, Pakistan.

Tel: (+92 21) 35833433, 34298521

Fax: (+92 21) 35833433

E-mail: /